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The HPV vaccine protects against infection with certain strains of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a group of viruses that can infect various parts of the body, including the skin and mucous membranes. There are many types of HPV, and some of them can cause health issues, particularly in the genital area.

The vaccine aims to prevent infection with the most common high-risk types of HPV that are known to cause cervical cancer, as well as other cancers in both men and women. Additionally, it protects against low-risk types of HPV that can cause genital warts.

It’s important to note that while the HPV vaccine is highly effective in preventing certain types of HPV infection, it does not protect against all types. Therefore, it is still essential for individuals who have received the vaccine to practice safe sex and undergo regular cervical cancer screenings for early detection.

Vaccination Price per dose Price per course (2 or 3 doses)
 HPV  £170  £340 / £510


Preventing HPV (Human Papillomavirus) infection involves a combination of vaccination and adopting safe sexual practices.

  • HPV Vaccination: The most effective way to prevent HPV infection is through vaccination and is recommended for both males and females. The vaccine provides protection against the most common high-risk types of HPV that can cause cervical cancer, as well as other cancers in both men and women, and low-risk types that cause genital warts. The HPV vaccine is highly effective in preventing infection and associated diseases.
  • Safe Sexual Practices: Practicing safe sex can reduce the risk of HPV transmission. While no method is 100% effective at preventing HPV transmission, using condoms or dental dams during sexual activity can help lower the chances of infection. However, HPV can be present on skin not covered by condoms, so it's important to remember that condoms do not provide complete protection.
  • Limiting Sexual Partners: Reducing the number of sexual partners can also lower the risk of HPV transmission. Having fewer sexual partners decreases the likelihood of coming into contact with someone who has an HPV infection.
  • Regular Screenings: Regular cervical cancer screenings for women are essential for early detection of any abnormal cell changes that could be related to HPV infection. Detecting these changes early can lead to early treatment and reduce the risk of developing cervical cancer.

  • Countries at risk

    HPV (Human Papillomavirus) is a global health concern, and all countries are at risk for HPV infections. The virus is highly prevalent worldwide and can affect people of all ages, genders, and socioeconomic backgrounds. HPV is primarily transmitted through sexual contact, and its distribution is linked to sexual behaviour patterns. However, certain factors may influence the prevalence and risk of HPV infection within a country or region, such as:

  • Access to Healthcare: Countries with better access to healthcare services tend to have higher rates of HPV vaccination, which can help reduce the risk of infection. Additionally, improved access to healthcare allows for better screening and early detection of HPV-related conditions, such as cervical cancer.
  • Awareness and Education: Countries that prioritize sexual education and raise awareness about HPV and its risks tend to have higher vaccination rates and more informed populations about preventive measures.
  • Vaccination Policies: Countries that have implemented national HPV vaccination programs or integrated the vaccine into routine immunisation schedules are likely to have lower HPV infection rates.
  • Cultural and Behavioral Factors: Cultural norms and sexual behaviors can influence the transmission of HPV within a population. Countries with higher rates of multiple sexual partners and lower rates of condom use may have an increased risk of HPV transmission.
  • Economic Development: In some cases, low and middle income countries may face challenges in implementing vaccination programs and providing adequate healthcare services, which can impact HPV prevalence and related health outcomes.

  • Sign and Symptoms

    HPV infections often do not cause any symptoms, and most people who contract the virus will clear it on their own without ever knowing they had it. However, certain types of HPV can lead to visible signs and symptoms. The symptoms can vary depending on the type of HPV and the location of the infection. Some of the common signs and symptoms associated with HPV infections are:

  • Genital Warts: Some types of HPV, particularly low-risk strains, can cause genital warts. These warts may appear as small, flesh-coloured bumps or clusters in the genital or anal area. They can vary in size and may be flat or raised. Genital warts are usually painless, but they may cause itching, discomfort, or bleeding in some cases.
  • Abnormal Smear Test Result: In women, high-risk HPV types can cause changes in the cells of the cervix. These changes can be detected through a cervical screening smear test, which is a screening test used to detect cervical cell abnormalities. An abnormal smear may indicate the presence of HPV or precancerous changes in the cervix.
  • Changes in the Anogenital Area: In addition to genital warts, HPV infections can cause other changes in the anogenital area. These changes may include abnormal growths, red or white patches, or other skin abnormalities.
  • Symptoms of HPV-related Cancers: Certain high-risk HPV types can increase the risk of developing various cancers, including cervical, vaginal, vulvar, anal, penile, and throat cancer. Symptoms of these cancers may include abnormal bleeding, pain, difficulty swallowing, or persistent hoarseness.

    It's crucial to note that many people with HPV infections, especially those with low-risk strains, may not experience any symptoms at all. Regular cervical cancer screenings for women are essential for early detection of abnormal cell changes caused by HPV. Additionally, vaccination against HPV can help prevent infection with the most common high-risk types and reduce the risk of associated health issues.

    If you notice any concerning symptoms or changes in the genital or anal area, or if you have questions about HPV or any potential exposure to the virus, it is important to seek advice from a healthcare provider. They can provide proper evaluation, testing, and guidance regarding prevention and management.